Volume 26, Issue 2 (Avicenna Journal of Clinical Medicine-Summer 2019)                   Avicenna J Clin Med 2019, 26(2): 99-104 | Back to browse issues page

XML Persian Abstract Print

1- , matini@umsha.ac.ir
Abstract:   (3013 Views)
Background and Objective: Toxocariasis is a common infection between humans and animals, which can be considered as a health issue in vulnerable populations due to its indigenous nature to the country and the region.  Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of contamination with Toxocara canis infection and exposure to its parasite in children.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 621 children aged 2 to12 years referred to health centers
in Kermanshah, Iran. After sampling and recording the demographic characteristics, the samples were tested for anti-T. canis antibody (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Data analysis was done using SPSS software and Fisher's exact test.
Results: Out of 621 tested serum samples, 8 samples (1.3%) were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. Of these, 5 and 3 samples were from male and female patients all living in urban areas. It is noteworthy that none of these individuals had a history of earth-eating, as well as touching or playing with the dog. However, a dog was kept at one of the child's home.
Conclusion: The results of the study showed a relatively low prevalence of toxocariasis infection in children, although the findings confirmed the establishment of the parasite transmission cycle in the region. Therefore, considering the importance of hygiene issues, it is necessary to develop and implement strategies for controlling and preventing the infection in the definitive hosts of the parasite in order to reduce the incidence of human infections.
Full-Text [PDF 895 kb]   (1136 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Original | Subject: Parasitology & Mycology

1. Pelloux H, Faure O. Toxocariasis in adults. Rev Med Interne. 2004;25(3):201-6. PMID: 15049281 DOI: 10.1016/s0248-8663(03)00258-3
2. Rubinsky-Elefant G, Hirata CE, Yamamoto JH, Ferreira MU. Human toxocariasis: diagnosis, worldwide seroprevalences and clinical expression of the systemic and ocular forms. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010;104(1):3-23. PMID: 20149289 DOI: 10.1179/136485910X12607012373957
3. Woodhall DM, Fiore AE. Toxocariasis: a review for pediatricians. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2014;3(2):154-9. PMID: 26625368 DOI: 10.1093/jpids/pit066
4. Muller R, Wakelin D. Worms and human disease. 2nd ed. Wallingford: CABi, 2002.
5. Fan CK, Liao CW, Cheng YC. Factors affecting disease manifestation of toxocarosis in humans: genetics and environment. Vet Parasitol. 2013;193(4):342-52. PMID: 23290279 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.12.030
6. Hotez PJ, Wilkins PP: Toxocariasis: America’s most common neglected infection of poverty and a helminthiasis of global importance? Plos Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3(3):e400. PMID: 19333373 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000400
7. Hotez PJ, Dumonteil E, Heffernan MJ, Bottazzi ME. Innovation for the ‘bottom 100 million’: eliminating neglected tropical diseases in the Americas. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013;764:1-12. PMID: 23654053 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-4726-9_1
8. Lee Rm, Moore Lb, Bottazzi ME, Hotez PG. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(8):e3116. PMID: 25166906 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003116
9. Won EJ, Kim J, Shin MG, Shin JH, Suh SP, Ryang DW. Seroepidemiology of toxocariasis and its clinical implications in gwangju and Jeonnam-province, Korea. Ann Lab Med. 2015;35(4):449-53. PMID: 26131418 DOI: 10.3343/alm.2015.35.4.449
10. Hosseini-Safa A, Mousavi SM, Bahadoran Bagh Badorani M, Ghatreh Samani M, Mostafaei S, Yousofi Darani H. Seroepidemiology of toxocariasis in children (5-15 yr old) referred to the pediatric clinic of Imam Hossein hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Iran J Parasitol. 2015;10(4):632-7. PMID: 26811731
11. Fallah E, Mahami-Oskouei L, Mahami-Oskouei M, Safaiyan A. Evaluation of indirect immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in diagnosis of visceral larva migranas. J Ilam Univ Med Sci. 2013;21(7):87-93. [Persian]
12. Alavi SM, Sefidgaran GH. Frequency of anti toxocara antibodies in schoolchildren with chronic cough and eosinophilia in urban and rural area of Ahvaz, Iran in 2006. Jundishapur Sci Med J. 2009;8(2):141-7.
13. Fallah M, Azimi A, Taherkhani H. Seroprevalence of toxocariasis in children aged 1-9 years in Hamadan – 2002. J Zanjan Univ Med Sci Health Serv. 2005;13(50):44-50. [Persian]
14. Akhlaghi L, Ourmazdi H, Sarafnia A, Vaziri S, Jadidian K, Leghaii Z. An investigation on the toxocariasis seroprevalence in children (2-12 years old) from Mahidasht area of Kermanshah Province 2003-2004. Razi J Med Sci. 2006;13(52):41-8.
15. Nichols RL. The etiology of visceral larva migrans. I. Diagnostic morphology of infective second-stage Toxocara larvae. J Parasitol. 1956;42:349-62. PMID: 13346427
16. Jacobs DE, Zhu X, Gasser RB, Chilton NB. PCR-based methods for identification of potentially zoonotic ascaridoid parasites of the dog, fox and cat. Acta Trop. 1997;68(2):191-200. PMID: 9386794
17. Romano N, Nor Azah MO, Rahmah N, Lim Y AL, Rohela M. Seroprevalence of toxocariasis among Orang Asli (Indigenous people) in Malaysia using two immunoassays. Trop Biomed. 2010;27(3):585-94. PMID: 21399601
18. de Savigny DH, Voller A, Woodruff AW. Toxocariasis: serological diagnosis by enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Pathol. 1979;32(3):284-8. PMID: 372253 DOI: 10.1136/jcp.32.3.284
19. Maizels RM, de Savigny D, Ogilvie BM. Characterization of surface and excretory-secretory antigens of Toxocara canis infective larvae. Parasite Immunol. 1984;6(1):23-37. PMID: 6701003 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3024.1984.tb00779.x
20. Engvall E, Perlmann P. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Quantitative assay of immunoglobulin G. Immunochemistry. 1971;8(9):871-4. PMID: 5135623
21. Geraili A, Maarofi Y, Dabirzade M, Normohamadi H, Khoshsima shahraki M. A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol City, southeastern of Iran. Arch Razi Institute. 2016;71(1):57-60. DOI: 10.22034/ari.2016.105999
22. Momen T, Esmaeil N, Reisi M. Seroprevalence of toxocara canis in asthmatic children and its relation to the severity of diseases. Med Arch. 2018;72(3):174-7. PMID: 30061761 DOI: 10.5455/medarh.2018.72.174-177

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.